Seminars

The Yiddish Culture in the former Third Reich Displaced Persons Camps

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Dr. Ella Florsheim sharing images of newsletters and other cultural material from the DP camps. 

During our seminar at Yad Vashem, we were fortunate to listen to a lecture from Dr. Ella Florsheim. Her lecture was titled: Yiddish Culture in Displaced Persons Camps in Germany: Newspaper, Theatre and Literature. Dr. Florsheim is a specialist in Jewish culture of the surviving remnant in post-conflict Germany.

Germany had 150 displaced person camps throughout the country. The largest was Bergen-Belsen, where, on average, the population of the camp was five to seven thousand, but the British hosted twelve thousand people at its peak of population. There were very few camps in other countries, including France, Austria and Italy, but these were mostly transit camps for larger, more prominent destinations in Germany. Germany was perceived as an exit point to America, Israel, and Great Britain – anywhere outside of former Third Reich. It should be noted that Jews and other displaced people tried to return to their homes, but, for an overwhelming majority of them, people had moved into their homes and refused to leave.

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Cohort V walking to the International School at Yad Vashem

During the years 1945 to 1948, there were still strict immigration laws in place. Jews and other displaced people didn’t have anywhere to go. Displaced persons lived in former Nazi concentration camps and military barracks. They were crowded and the living conditions were dismal, but their spirits did not break. They shared unique community and culture with one another, which is exactly what Dr. Ella Florsheim studies.

After the Holocaust, there were “signs of life” as Dr. Florsheim put it, a “strong vitality to recreate community.” But the communities still suffered from the aftermath of the Holocaust – the end of the war did not mean the end of dying. 30,000 people died in the first weeks after Bergen-Belsen was liberated. But this time period also proved to give birth to new life: in two and half years, one thousand babies were born in these camps. Most of these new mothers lost their own mothers to the gas chambers. German doctors were brought in to care for these new mothers and to help with labor.

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Students Hana Green and Jasmine Munn on the Yad Vashem Campus. 

It was significant for survivors to start new life on German soil, as many of them had considered Germany their home before the Holocaust. The rise of Jewish leadership was marked after liberation, specifically after Munich was liberated. They formed democratically elected governments of sorts,  and they started hospitals and orphanages in the DP camps. They also formed cultural organizations such as theatres and newspapers, among others.  

Only three weeks after the liberation in Buchenwald, surviving Jews started a newsletter called, in Yiddish, “Undzer Sztime” or “Our Voice.” The first publication was sent out on July 12, 1945. David Rosenthal was one of the founders, and he said that doing something for the Jews meant doing it in Yiddish. The translation of Yiddish in Yiddish is Jewish, and the two concepts were inseparable for him. They found old typing machines with Hebrew letters, which amazingly survived the onslaught of Jewish culture in the Third Reich. They put a lot of effort into finding and even making, by hand, rubber stamp letters, so they could print their newsletters in Yiddish. They sent this newsletter throughout the system of displaced person camps in the former Third Reich, and they shared a bond through the culture they shared, which was viciously attacked for the last 12 years.

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Dr. Florsheim sharing with Cohort V. 

Another newspaper called the “Lansberger Lager ceitung” in Yiddish, or “Landsberg Camp Newspaper,” was published in Latin letters between 1945 and 1948, as well as another called the “Jidisze Cajtung” or the “Jewish Times.” The different newspapers held different competitions collecting poems and short stories, which were the first testaments to their memories of the Holocaust. Winners of these competitions were promised speedy movement with visa paperwork.

Schools in the DP camps weren’t teaching Yiddish, though, they were teaching Hebrew for the two thirds of the population which would eventually end up in Palestine. A saying in the camp went something like this: “Speak Yiddish, study Hebrew.” Their identity was Yiddish but their future was Hebrew.

The Katzet Theatre began in Bergen-Belsen, and Sholem Aleichem worked as director and playwright. He wasn’t afraid to discuss their experiences of the Holocaust on stage. He argued it was therapeutic and cathartic. Another theatre group started in Munich called “The Enchanted Tailor.” They travelled between other DP camps for the three years they were an institution in the former Third Reich. They always met an excited and abundant audience, and were in high demand. There was a singular relationship between laughing and crying in their plays, and the theatre accepted it and worked from that place. The genre they created was a sort of therapy drama. It put the audience in control of their surroundings, which was new and different for them, and it allowed them to process their experiences differently.

Meanwhile in Palestine, it was illegal to perform a play in Yiddish and they had an emphasis on a new Israeli culture. Yiddish in America was also being lost. A survivor was quoted saying “I wasn’t in Treblinka, but my word went to flame there.” The culture found in the DP camps of the former Third Reich was the last blinking life of European Jewry, and Ella Dr. Florsheim’s research underlines the importance of the culture that was destroyed under the Nazi regime.


Interested in applying for our MA in Holocaust Studies Program?  You can find the application and more information at our website

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Seminars

Jackie Metzger, of Yad Vashem’s International school, talks about Poetry and the Holocaust

IMG_3351Dr. Jackie Metzger shared his talk “Literature in the Holocaust: Teaching the Holocaust through Poetry” with our students during their seminar at Yad Vashem. Here are three of the poems he discussed.

Written in Pencil in a Sealed Freightcar | By Dan Pagis
Here in this car
I am Eve
With my son Abel
If you see my older boy
Cain son of Adam
Tell him that I…

This was the first poem Dr. Metzger presented. Dan Pagis, 1930-1986, was a revered Professor at Hebrew University from Bukovina, Romania. This poem, Written in Pencil in a Sealed Freightcar, is written on a memorial at Belzec Death Camp. In his presentation and discussion, Dr. Metzger suggested a relationship between Eve and life, Cain and death, and Abel with the murdered. Pagis draws attention to the first murder in relation with mass murder and the Holocaust. Dr. Metzger suggested that as Cain and Abel were brothers, so were the Germans and Jews, because we are human therefore we are related. The poem touches on the incomprehensibility of the Holocaust.

Testimony | Dan Pagis
No no: they definitely were
human beings: uniforms, boots.
How to explain? They were created
in the image.

I was a shade.
A different creator made me.

And he in his mercy left nothing of me that would die.
And I fled to him, rose weightless, blue,
forgiving – I would even say: apologizing –
smoke to omnipotent smoke
without image or likeness.

Pagis makes a distinction between them and me, “they were created in the image,” and “a different creator made me.” In saying that a different creator made him, he’s rejecting the monotheistic idea of God. Dr. Metzger made an interesting conclusion, saying, “Who you fear is your god, the Germans feared Hitler.” Is Pagis rejecting the idea of Hitler as a god? Pagis, acknowledges his god in the last stanza, “He in his mercy,” which confers this idea.

Shema | Primo Levi
You who live secure
In your warm houses
Who return at evening to find
Hot food and friendly faces:

Consider whether this is a man,
Who labors in the mud
Who knows no peace
Who fights for a crust of bread
Who dies at a yes or no.
Consider whether this is a woman
Without hair or name
With no more strength to remember
Eyes empty and womb cold
As a frog in the winter

Consider that this has been:
I commend these words to you.
Engrave them on your hearts
When you are In your houses
When you walk on your way
When you go to bed, when you rise
Repeat them to your children.
Or may your house crumble,
Disease render you powerless,
Your offspring avert their faces from you.

This poem was written 15 weeks after the liberation of Auschwitz. This last poem is named after a prayer that devout Jews say three times a day, affirming the name of God. Levi wrote this poem as a sort of prayer, as a plea to remember the Holocaust. The first stanza is directed at the Germans and anyone that wouldn’t help him. Then Levi describes the Holocaust in the second stanza. The last stanza takes words from the Shema and  commands the reader to tell everyone about the Holocaust, it is imperative to pass on to future generations.

If you are interested in learning more about poetry and the Holocaust, read this educational guide by Yad Vashem.

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Interested in applying for our MA in Holocaust Studies Program?  You can find the application and more information at our website

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Research Forum, Seminars

Attacks on Holocaust survivors and pogroms in post-war Poland – a lecture by Dr. Edyta Gawron of Jagiellonian University

Dr. Edyta Gawron from Jagiellonian University in Krakow is visiting the Weiss-Livnat International MA in Holocaust Studies this week, offering one-on-one time with students who are particularly interested in her research, as well as giving two lectures to our students. She is an assistant professor at the Department of Jewish Studies as well as the Head of the new Centre for the Study of the History and Culture of Krakow Jews.

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Dr. Edyta Gawron

In her first lecture, Dr. Gawron discussed the difficulties Jews faced in reacclimating in post-war Poland.  Her second lecture was given during Dr. Lea David’s class, “Human Rights, Holocaust, Genocide: The Politics of Remembrance.” In this lecture she shared insights regarding post-war Poland. The thought in Poland remained, even after the war, that Jews had caused WWII, or at the very least the invasion of Poland. Nazi anti-Semitism was well known, and because Jews were being attacked in Germany, specifically after Kristallnacht, Poles feared the Nazis would invade to strike against the Polish Jews. Another rumor prevalent in post-war Poland was that the Jews brought the USSR to Poland because they were associated with Bolshevism, just as the Nazis linked Jews and Bolsheviks. These were not the only reasons for anti-Semitism in Poland, however they exemplify the idiocy of anti-Semitism that was rampant in Poland.

In 1945, immediately after the war, there were some pogroms in Poland where Jews were physically attacked and beaten, as well as emotionally attacked through social exile. Jews were essentially pushed out of the towns they used to call home.

Dr. Gawron shared an instance of a pogrom that took place in Krakow, approximately 70 km from Auschwitz, on Saturday morning April 11, 1945. A group of Holocaust survivors went to pray in the synagogue near an open air market  when a group of boys began throwing rocks at the synagogue. One of the boys entered the synagogue and ran out screaming “Jews are trying to kill me! I saw Christian blood in the synagogue!” In the post war situation, the crowd reacted without thinking, and the rumor was spread throughout the city that Jews were killing Christian children. The pogrom lasted for several hours, dozens were seriously injured and a Holocaust survivor named Roza Berger was shot in her apartment a short distance from the market. After the pogrom, the accusing boy admitted that he had been bribed to slander the Jews and lie to everyone that the Jews were killing Christian children for sacrifices or blood libel. This was a common fabrication to stir anti-Semitism.

The Kielce pogrom on July 4, 1946, was even more violent. 42 Jews were killed. An eighteen year-old-boy was missing for the weekend; he didn’t want to tell his parents the real reason he was missing (he had snuck out with friends), so he made up a story. However,the authorities directed the conversation and asked him if he had been kidnapped and he answered affirmatively. Then they asked him if he was kidnapped by strangers, to which he answered yes. Finally, they asked if his kidnappers were Jews, which he affirmed, adding that they lived in a building where many of the returning Jews lived. They ask him if they had also kidnapped other Christians and he again confirmed that they had. The resulting pogrom lead to the killing of 42 Jews, starting with those who lived in the specific building the authorities had pointed out. Then the whole town was involved, all hunting out the Jews who were running from the pogrom. After this event, all of the surviving Jews in Kielce banded together and left Poland.

Altogether, 1,500 Jews were killed in post-war Poland. Although Dr. Gawron mentioned that it’s not fair to say that all of the murders were inspired by anti-Semitism, there was a lot of violence in post-war Poland. Many people were were attacked and murdered on the road because it looked like might have food or valuables. Within one year, 100,000 Polish Jews left Poland to establish lives elsewhere. Perhaps the Poles acted out of fear, specifically fear of confrontation? Maybe non-Jewish Poles were scared to confront Jews with their inability to act during the Holocaust. After the war, people became desensitized, and post-war Poland was rife with crime. One theory is a psychological phenomenon that victims (Poles) will victimize others (Jews) for a sense of control. This resulted in tension between the two groups.

Unfortunately, immediately after the war there was no public education in Poland about what they Jews had gone through, nothing about gas chambers in the papers. In the general public,  the realities of the Holocaust were unknown. Maybe better Holocaust education would have helped? Polish-Jewish life after the Holocaust was difficult, even impossible.

We would like to thank Dr. Edyta Gawron for coming and presenting to our students, and for the research advice and expertise she offered.

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In order from left to right: Anat Bratman-Elhalel (Director of Archives at the Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum), Lindsay Shapiro (Cohort IV), and Dr. Edyta Gawron.

In order from left to right: Anat Bratman-Elhalel (Director of Archives at the Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum), Lindsay Shapiro (Cohort IV), and Dr. Edyta Gawron.


Interested in applying for our MA in Holocaust Studies Program?  You can find the application and more information at our website

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Research Forum, Seminars

Attacks on Holocaust survivors and pogroms in post-war Poland – a lecture by Dr. Edyta Gawron of Jagiellonian University

Dr. Edyta Gawron from Jagiellonian University in Krakow is visiting the Weiss-Livnat International MA in Holocaust Studies this week, offering one-on-one time with students who are particularly interested in her research, as well as giving two lectures to our students. She is an assistant professor at the Department of Jewish Studies, as well as the Head of the new Centre for the Study of the History and Culture of Krakow Jews.

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Dr. Edyta Gawron

 

In her first lecture, she discussed Jewish survivors in Poland and Jewish life in Poland after the Holocaust. Before the war, there were 3.5 million Jews in Poland who made up about 10% of the population; only 10% of the Jewish population survived the Holocaust. Approximately 250,000 Jews returned and stayed in Poland, after the war, while roughly 100,000 survivors found homes elsewhere. The majority (50-60%) of Polish Jews survived by fleeing to the USSR, which was by no means a safe haven, however it offered more security for Polish Jews during Nazi occupation. An additional 10% of Polish Jews survived German Nazi camps. 10-18% survived among Poles, meaning they could pass as Aryan, however they needed access to forged identification papers and they needed to remain anonymous: Jewish leaders or any other recognizable or renown Jew could not have survived among Poles. Another minority survived as partisans living in makeshift villages in the forests of Poland, such as the Bielski Otriad. After the war a minority of survivors fled Europe entirely to Asia, South America, Australia, Palestine, and more.

When Jewish survivors returned to Poland, they returned to a culture of survivors: six million Poles died in WWII, meaning that, on average, every Polish family lost as least one family member in the war, while among Jewish survivors on average only one family member survived the war. These survivors of war-torn Poland made for a hostile community for those returning to Poland.

There were challenges in identifying Jewish survivors returning to Poland. Among the surviving community, there was an extreme fear of registering with any Jewish organization because these registries were used by Nazis to round up Jews prior to the Holocaust. Furthermore, many of the survivors were forced to change their names with new identification papers, and giving up what had been their lifeline was difficult and sometimes impossible.

Within the Jewish survivor community there were further challenges of dissonance: those who survived camps felt their suffering was greater than those who had hid or those who were forced laborers in Gulags, and visa versa. Many Jews who were in the USSR had no knowledge of the gas chambers, and those who survived in Poland had no clear idea of the torture of the Gulags. These comparisons and lack of knowledge led to challenges in the organization of Jewish welfare groups and the revival of religious life after the war.

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Dr. Edyta Gawron speaking about “adult orphans.”

Yet, these organizations were desperately needed. All survivors, children and adults, had no one left; there were boarding houses full of children as well as adults, a phenomenon known as “adult orphans.” The Jewish organizations in Poland were needed to provide shelter, as well as food and government representation, all of which were sorely lacking.  These organizations also started the important work of starting the initial database of survivors and those who had perished.

These organizations also provided documentation for post war trials, which were held locally, nationally and internationally depending on the crimes and sometimes perpetrators were tried three times. These trials attempted to offer a sense of justice, which introduced the thought of normality through closure. The perpetrator’s punishment for these trials varied but the most common was exile from the community. Factors of normality included age, whether family members had survived, and the establishment of Jewish religious life. Still, the road to normality was long, and upon return to Poland most Jews still found anti-Semitism prevalent among their communities, and pogroms continued even after the war. (Dr. Gawron spoke more on this in her second lecture, which you can read here.)

After WWII, some 250,000 Jews returned and remained in Poland, and after several mass waves of immigration, only approximately 8,000 Jews remain in Poland today. Despite the numbers, the Jewish community is active within Poland, with many synagogues specifically in Krakow, Warsaw or Lodz hosting Jewish visitors every week, making the community seem larger than it is.

The Jewish Holocaust wasn’t at the forefront of discussion in Poland until after the collapse of communism in 1989, and as a result, Holocaust education was decades behind other perpetrating countries. Scholars, like Dr. Edyta Gawron and her research, continue to better Holocaust education in Poland. We were happy to host her and glean from her knowledge.

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In order from left to right: Anat Bratman-Elhalel (Director of Archives at the Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum), Lindsay Shapiro (Cohort IV), and Dr. Edyta Gawron.


Interested in applying for our MA in Holocaust Studies Program?  You can find the application and more information at our website

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Seminars, Special Tours

Our Visit to the Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum: The Center for Humanistic Education

This is part four of a series about our four day seminar at the Ghetto Fighters’ House. You can read about the first day of our visit hereour second day here, and our third day here.

On the last day of our seminar at the Ghetto Fighter’s House Museum, our students spent the day at the Center for Humanistic Education (CHE), which is located just next to the main museum. CHE hosts groups of school aged youths from all over Israel to learn about human rights and realistic application. They have many workshops designed to teach students about different forms of oppressive governments and genocide prevention.

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Cohort V in one of the exhibitions at the Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum

Our students’ host took them through one of these workshops. They discussed different currents of theory based on Holocaust education. The students split into five groups, and each group was given a quote from leading Holocaust scholars about the value of Holocaust education. Some scholars claim that the Holocaust is unique, there was a certain set of preconditions that made the Holocaust possible. Other scholars affirm that genocide is universal, and so the Holocaust offers general education about genocide to some extent, and through studying the Holocaust genocide can be prevented. Another scholar claimed there is actually no worth in studying the Holocaust, because, as an affected society, Jews should forget the Holocaust and move forward with future-oriented thinking. Our students defended each of these theories, and then they had to pick which theory they most identified with. Discussing these theories reminded our students why they are studying the Holocaust.

Another workshop that CHE leads students through is called Brain Land. In this workshop, students create a government based on the ideology that people with a high IQ are high class and the governing one, while people with a low IQ are the lower class. The students work together to create a government based on this ideology. The students find that it is easy to create laws that oppress the lower class group. After this exercise they talk about how the Holocaust is universal, hate is hate, and ideology based on hate is dangerous.

 

 

Noha Khatib, Deputy Director of CHE, discussed with our students how Arab and Jewish students study the Holocaust both differently and similarly. Many students compare the Holocaust to the Nakba, which in Arabic this means “Great Catastrophe.” The Nakba occurred in 1948 when the Palestinians lost the War of Independance. Most people who study the Holocaust compare their own feelings of loss and hurt with what the Jews went through during the Holocaust, at least to their own extent. If the Holocaust can be considered universal, and the ideology of hate is universal, then these comparisons come naturally and they can be used to further Holocaust education. At CHE, Arabs and Jews can come to the same room and discuss difficult conflicts. Four graduates of this program, aged 17, came to speak with our students – two Arabs and two Jews. They candidly shared their experiences and explained education at CHE.

We would like to thank the Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum and Kibbutz for hosting us and offering valuable Holocaust education knowledge and methodologies.

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The outdoor Auditorium at the Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum seats thousands for their ceremony on the eve of Yom haShoah. This year’s ceremony will be on Monday April 24. 

Here are some informational links:

Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum

The Center for Humanistic Education

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Seminars, Special Tours

Our Visit to the Ghetto Fighter’s House Museum: Children and Holocaust Education

This is part three of a series about our four day seminar at the Ghetto Fighters’ House. You can read about the first day of our visit here, and our second day here.

On the third day at the Ghetto Fighters’ House our students met with Madene Shachar who guided them through Yad Layeled, a children’s Holocaust museum. Madene discussed the challenges presented to the museum staff regarding children’s Holocaust education, where one of the questions was: is this museum experiential or educational? She talked about how the museum made decisions when constructing Yad Layeled, both the physical building and the philosophy behind the education.

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Memorial to the Children of Theresienstadt

For example, at the entrance of the museum there is a memorial space for the children who perished in the Holocaust. The circular room’s walls, with a vaulted ceiling, is covered with stained glass windows.  Roman Halter designed the project; he based it on pictures children drew while living in the Theresienstadt Ghetto. Rami Karmi took these ideas and made the project reality. These children were living in two worlds: the ghetto and their imagination, an imagination only a child could live in. Most of the drawings are of plants and nature, swings and homes; they don’t depict accurately what their life was in Theresienstadt but rather what they dreamed of. As the light pours into the room, through these small windows, visitors are reminded that the children were kept from the outside world and trapped, yet the drawings themselves are beautiful and full of life. Madene shared some of the ideology behind this memorial: the museum wanted to focus on the life of the children rather than their death, and this is one of the ways the museum emphasizes their lives.

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Theatre in the Round, Cohort V on the way to see the play

After the students walked through the museum, they were invited to see a play based on the true life story of one of the child survivors featured in the museum. The play was performed in a dome theatre just outside of the museum, where the theatre hosts audiences almost every day for different groups that tour the museum. Our play was special because it was the first time it was performed in English. The museum staff uses this play, the survivor’s testimony, and other educational tools to teach the Holocaust to children, and most often they will include workshops where children can use art to express how they feel about the survivor’s story, which will usually include drawing, music or drama.

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At the Janusz Korczak Exhibition

Our students also visited the Janusz Korczak Exhibit which is located at the center of Yad Layeled. This exhibit tells the story of Janusz Korczak, who was the director of a Jewish Orphanage in Poland when the Germans invaded Poland. When the Nazis came to take the children to Treblinka, Korczak refused to leave them and went to Treblinka with them on August 5, 1942. Janusz Korczak was devoted to the children in his orphanage, and testimonies from orphaned children who survived the Holocaust relate his love for them. The exhibit has five different installations which comprise the “Circle of Life” of Janusz Korczck. 

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Cohort V students at the Janusz Korczak Exhibit.

Yad Layeled recorded many interviews with survivors who were children during the Holocaust; many of these survivors are gone now. The survivor generation is almost completely gone. The question of remembrance is coming to the forefront of Holocaust Studies, Yad Layeled offers an answer to this question with the integration of testimony and artistic expression.


Interested in applying for our MA in Holocaust Studies Program?  You can find the application and more information at our website

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Seminars, Special Tours

Our Visit to the Ghetto Fighter’s House Museum: Research in the Archives

This is part two of a series about our four day seminar at the Ghetto Fighters’ House. You can read about the first day of our visit here.

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Cohort V visiting the Remembrance Hall exhibition.

On the second day of the Ghetto Fighters’ House Seminar, Cohort V met with Anat Bratman-Elhalel, the head of archives. She took us to the Remembrance Hall, an exhibit that was just finished a year ago. The exhibition is designed in such a way that the archives are brought to the public. The artifacts are behind dark glass, the visitors use touch screens to illuminate the objects and get information about each of the objects. Four of our students are helping further the research of the exhibit. Anat talked to us about what remembrance is and how to allow the artifacts tell us history.

 

The students were also taken to the Researchers Room and given access to the vast archives. The Ghetto Fighters’ House has an exceptional collection of art made during the Holocaust, and most of their pieces are available for viewing online. One of our students will be assisting with an exhibition of Malva Schalek’s work from the Theresienstadt Ghetto. Malva was killed in Auschwitz but her paintings linger and relate what life was like in Theresienstadt. This exhibition will start in June, so stay tuned for more information.

The students were also taken through different exhibitions at the museum, including the Warsaw Ghetto Fights Back exhibition. The museum was designed in such a way for groups to be taken through each exhibit exclusively their their own group. Each exhibit has a place for a group to sit and discuss the exhibit. Our students discussed the importance of resistance in the Holocaust, including spiritual resistance, a term coined by Miriam Novitch, a Holocaust survivor and founding member of the Ghetto Fighters’ House kibbutz. Miriam advocated for Holocaust survivors who weren’t involved in active violent resistance, but called attention to resistance through participation in Jewish traditions, prayer, even living.

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Cohort V at the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising exhibition.

The students were also brought to the Camps Exhibition, here they were asked to dissect the symbolism in the exhibition design. They talked about exhibition design pertaining to the Holocaust and how to successfully show and impart messages. The Ghetto Fighters’ House staff was excellent in sharing museology with our students.

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Cohort V working with testimonies from founders of the Ghetto Fighters’ House Kibbutz


Interested in applying for our MA in Holocaust Studies Program?  You can find the application and more information at our website

 

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